Author Archives: dulcetware

About dulcetware

designing educational software applications

Inhaled Levodopa

Introduction Levodopa was the first main, and arguably still the best, treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Being similar in structure to tyrosine, it is absorbed through the gut by an amino acid transporter – its half life in the blood is … Continue reading

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Revolution in acute ischaemic stroke care: a practical guide to mechanical thrombectomy

Introduction Stroke is the most common cause of disability in Western Countries, and its lifetime risk is up to 25%. While managing acute stroke patients in hyperacute stroke units is regarded as having benefits for short and long term outcome, … Continue reading

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Testing for COVID-19 Infection

Accurate testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection, by which we mean testing with few false positives as well as few false negatives, is important not only for clinical management of individual cases but for epidemiological case tracing, limiting spread of infection and … Continue reading

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Distinguishing Encephalitis from Encephalopathy

Encephalitis may be defined as infection or inflammation of the brain substance, resulting typically in disturbed sensorium and perhaps seizures or focal neurological deficits and sometimes pyrexia. Encephalopathy in the other hand represents disturbed sensorium not due to an infective … Continue reading

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Making a Differential Diagnosis using a Clinical Database

Background A great deal of time is spent in medicine reading and writing case reports. Essentially, clinical features are listed and a diagnosis made. Excluding those cases that point to a novel means of treatment, a case report is often … Continue reading

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Coronavirus is obviously not a neurological disease, apart from an isolated case report of encephalitis associated with the condition, which is to be expected very rarely in association with viral infections, but because it is so topical this paper Clinical … Continue reading

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Anticonvulsant Medications for Status Epilepticus

Status epilepticus is a medical emergency with significant morbidity and mortality and, in circumstances where benzodiazepines alone have failed to terminate seizures, has traditionally been treated with anticonvulsants such as phenytoin or phenobarbitone. Other intravenously administered antiepileptics have also been … Continue reading

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Galcanezumab in Chronic Migraine

Migraine is one of the most common neurological conditions, and chronic migraine is a condition that, while less common than episodic migraine, is nevertheless a major cause of loss of quality of life in otherwise well individuals. Once analgesia headache … Continue reading

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Disease Modifying Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis: Background for General Readers

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a presumed autoimmune condition of demyelination and often inflammation of the central nervous system. Its evolution is very variable; some patients suffer episodes lasting weeks to months with complete or near complete recovery in between, and … Continue reading

Posted in Inflammatory/ Auto-Immune Diseases, Primer Posts for General Readers | Tagged , | 1 Comment

Ocrelizumab versus Placebo in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Recent studies indicate that higher strength disease modifying therapies (DMTs) may slow disability progression in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as reduce the number of relapses. There have also been trials in primary progressive MS but these, most … Continue reading

Posted in Inflammatory/ Auto-Immune Diseases | Tagged , , , , | 1 Comment